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Osisigxina inkundla arbitration


Enye januwari, inani arbitrators kwi uluhlu waba

I-osisigxina Inkundla arbitration sisivumelwano samazwe ngamazwe umbutho waseka ngowe- ukuze kuphunyezwe isisombululo ka-disputes phakathi ilungu statesI-amatyala igqunywe umqolo ngeendlela ezininzi imihlaba kuquka demarcation ka-imida kwi ilizwe kwaye elwandle, sovereignty, amalungelo oluntu, ngamazwe utyalo-mali norhwebo langaphandle imicimbi kwaye sangaphakathi. Sele yayo headquarters kwi-Hague kwi-Netherlands, ngomhla Uxolo Palace, awathi kanjalo izindlu yamazwe ngamazwe Inkundla lobulungisa kwaye Academy of wamazwe ngamazwe. I-unye ka-inkundla ukuba ingaba zikhathalele i-arbitrations ngamazwe akazange entsha, eneneni lokuqala ixwebhu imizekelo nkqu khangela emva ukumkani Udariyo ka-Persia. Kamva, ngexesha armistice amathathu iminyaka C. phakathi kwe-Atene kwaye Sparta, wamisa efanayo umzimba ukusombulula disputes phakathi ezimbini izixeko. Ziphakathi Iminyaka, indima intermediary phakathi u-mandla, kwaba incumbent kwi-pope, nangona kunjalo, kwakungekho njl malunga yokuba yayo verdicts baba mbasa ukuba abe bophelela okanye ngokulula icebiso abalawuli. Kwi-NINETEENTH century kuba ixwebhu eziliqela iimeko apho i-nkqubo ka-arbitration waba kusetyenziswa ukusombulula ngamazwe disputes phambi outbreak ka-hostilities. I-unye a osisigxina inkundla waba ungeniswa kwi-isivumelwano phakathi republics ka-Latin Emelika ne-United States. Kanjalo stipulated ukuba inkundla arbitration ayikwazi hlalutya le disputes phakathi kwezizwe, ngoko ke njengoko ukunqanda ungquzulwano. Emva Lokuqala tan-i-american Kwenkomfa comment ingxwaba, kwi isibheno ukuba inkundla arbitration waba eyandisiweyo na imbambano ukuba pertained 'yesizwe imbeko kwaye vital izinto ezichaphazela kwimo'. Kwaba kuphela ngexesha Hague inkomfa ka, elamiselwa phambi kokuba Inkundla arbitration kwi-global inqanaba. Umsebenzi ka-ekumiseleni Inkundla washiyeka ukuba umphathiswa Langaphandle Imicimbi Enetherlands de Umasipala, owaye mbasa inani izizwe bathathe inxaxheba ngokwaneleyo ngoseptemba, kwaye, ke ngoko, convoked intlanganiso yokuqala, ithoba epreli, ngenjongo appointing i-amagosa. Le ntlanganiso ngenxa kwi-ukuqeshwa entsha, unobhala-jikelele R. Melvil, Baron van Lynden Oku kwaye zonke ezinye iintlanganiso de agasti ka- baba igcine kwi palace ye-Hague de inkundla bafudukela apha kwi-Uxolo Palace. Phakathi kwe- kwaye, inkundla waba zange convened, inspiring satirical cartoons ukuba yabonisa isakhiwo ngaphandle sebenzisa kuba ziyathengiswa. Kunye end Omkhulu Imfazwe, Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration waba yinxalenye league Yezizwe, ngokutsha waseka kunye umnqweno ukuseka i-umbutho kunye ngakumbi iinkalo zobuchule kwaye ngaphezulu reliable. Yesibini ixesha inactivity wenkundla, phakathi kwaye, lowo wamngenisa ezininzi ingcaphephe kwi-wamazwe ngamazwe ukuba buza kuba abolition. I-enye proposal wayeza kusibuyisa kwi inkundla ukuba ingaba yaba yayikukwenza ukusombulula disputes phakathi states kwaye private abantu.

Nangona kunjalo, akukho nanye kwezi iziphakamiso waba ngempumelelo kwaye Inkundla igcine enye indima ebalulekileyo.

Ilt redici oktobha, kwaba awarded ubume nakanye kwi UN jikelele yowiso-mthetho. Ishumi elinesibhozo oktobha kwaye kweyedwarha baba igcine ezimbini iziganeko ukuba commemorate, ngokulandelelanayo, centenary inkomfa ka, kwaye unikezelo ye-umbutho kwi-Uxolo Palace.

Kuphela osisigxina ezibini Wenkundla ingaba yamazwe ngamazwe Bureau of the chancellery, Ibhodi abalawuli osisigxina, arbitrators wonyulwa yindlu States amaqela ukuba Hague Sivumelwano, kwaye ekugqibeleni uluhlu imithetho nkqubo.

Kuba oku umba yindlela ebalulekileyo kwi-Ngamazwe Inkundla Lobulungisa omnye umahluko kukuba yokuba i-iiseshoni ye-Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration igcine yangasese kwaye ingaba ziyimfihlo. I-CPA ayiyo 'inkundla' ngendlela efanelekileyo intsingiselo ixesha, kodwa i-administrative umbutho kunye imbono ka ekubeni osisigxina kuthethwa ngala afumaneka ngokuzenzekela ezikhoyo ukukhonza njengoko bhalisa ngamazwe arbitration kunye neminye enxulumene nemigaqo-nkqubo, kuquka commissions ka-inquiry kwaye conciliation. Inkundla ayikho inkundla arbitration okanye isivumelwano, kodwa ngokulula uluhlu abakhethwe ngabo States amaqela ukuba i-convention, awathi ngabo States amaqela ukuba imbambano unako khetha arbitrators onikwe kunye yesisombululo sebenzisa uncedo a iqumrhu lolawulo'. Ibhodi abalawuli yindlela umzimba composed bonke diplomatic abameli ka-ilungu States ogunyazisiweyo kwi-Enetherlands. Kubalulekile chaired yi-Dutch Umphathiswa langaphandle imicimbi, ngubani kanjalo ilungu, kwaye composed yi-diplomatic agents ye-States iqela i-Convention, ogunyazisiweyo kwi-Enetherlands. Ibhodi inoxanduva lokulawula kuka yamazwe ngamazwe Bureau, uhlahlo-lwabiwo-mali ye-umbutho kwaye ingxelo kwiqela imisebenzi. Lwabagwebi okanye arbitrators abo kuva iimeko zibizwa ngokuba amalungu Inkundla. Ilungu ngalinye Likarhulumente angatyumba ukuya kwi sine 'ezilungileyo competence kwi-imibuzo yomthetho wamazwe ngamazwe, obukhulu kwendlela reputation kwaye zilahliwe amkele imisebenzi arbitrators kuba ohlaziyekayo ithuba ezintandathu ubudala. I-arbitrators ngamnye ilungu Urhulumente kunye ifomu a 'iqela lesizwe'. Lwabagwebi zibe ekhethiweyo kwi iimeko arbitration apho CPA inika inkxaso. Amaqela Wesizwe, unako propose candidates kuba amalungu Ngamazwe Inkundla Lobulungisa. I-CPA ngamanye amaxesha ubhideke kunye ngamazwe Inkundla lobulungisa, oko sele yayo headquarters enye yokwakha. I-CPA, nangona kunjalo, hayi inxenye ezimanyeneyo indlela, nkqu ukuba ingaba ubume nakanye kwi-jikelele yowiso-mthetho ezimanyeneyo ukusukela ngo. I-Administrative Ibhunga ingaba icandelo likarhulumente ukuze alawule, kwaye supervise umbutho, sele ngokukodwa i-administrative umsebenzi kwi-ulawulo yamazwe ngamazwe Bureau, ingakumbi kwimiba ngemiba imivuzo kwaye kolwabiwo-mali, kanjalo kuzoba phezulu ingxelo yonyaka kwi imisebenzi Amagunya amaqela nemvumelwano. Layo umsebenzi ilawulwa ngumthetho Imithetho umgaqo-nkqubo we-Administrative Ibhunga ikuvumile Hague, nineteen kaseptemba. Ibhodi ngu composed ka-diplomatic abameli ogunyazisiweyo yi-ngamazwe Iinkomfa kuba noxolo kwi-Hague.

Ngowe, zilithoba states inxaxheba ukumiselwa kwebandla i-icandelo likarhulumente, oko utyumba Unobhala-Jikelele, intloko ngamazwe Bureau kwaye Ummeli Wenkundla.

Nganye States amaqela ngu eliphetheyo ukuba onyule ubukhulu ka-ezine referees Wenkundla. Amagama abo bamele kubonisiwe kwi-uluhlu ngokulinganayo! phezulu yi-Bureau, isithuba seminyaka emithandathu ubudala, ngaphaya apho zabo ugunyaziso zibe ukuvuselelwa. Kubalulekile ukusuka olu luhlu ukuba arbitrators ngasinye ethile meko kwi umbuzo abakhethiweyo. Kwaba sele kuchazwe njalo kumgaqo-Statute ye league Yezizwe ukuba candidates kuba lwabagwebi le inkundla esiqwalaselweyo kuluhlu linikelwe 'wesizwe amaqela' (ukuya kwi-ezine arbitrators esikhethiweyo nganye yi-imo) Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration. Enye ihlala isebenza yamazwe Ngamazwe Inkundla Lobulungisa, amalungu apho zona, enyanisweni, esikhethiweyo yi-Jikelele yowiso-mthetho kunye Nokhuseleko Ibhunga kuluhlu linikelwe yesizwe amaqela kwi-Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration. Amalungu Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration unako kanjalo propose candidates kuba le-Nobel prize kuba Noxolo. Yamazwe ngamazwe Bureau, namakhaya yi-Unobhala-jikelele we-Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration, ibonelela isemthethweni inkxaso, enzima kwaye sezolawulo, maintains kwamaxwebhu kwaye igosa isiqhagamshelanisi ka-unxibelelwano. I izinto - ye-Hague Inkomfa ka, kuba uninzi inxalenye ngokusekelwe wangaphambili ezikhoyo izivumelwano phakathi states, ochaziweyo imithetho nemigaqo-nkqubo ka-arbitration. Le migaqo baba ya ngowe-: ekudalweni a esenziwe lula inkqubo elula kuba iimeko ngu engundoqo ukwenza inguqulelo entsha. Baba ke esetyenziswa kwi- ke kwi-Osisigxina Inkundla Ngamazwe Ubulungisa. Kwindawo yokuqala, amaqela uyavuma ukuba ebizwa-'urhwebo-offs', apho kuvakalisa imisebenzi namagunya arbitrators. Inkqubo esemthethweni umgaqo-nkqubo iqulathe ezimbini izigaba zawo: ukubhala isicelo kwaye verbal ngxoxo. Ngexesha lokuqala yinxalenye umgaqo-nkqubo, agents kwaye abaqondisi-mthetho ukuqokelela, faka amaxwebhu kwaye ubungqina abaxhasayo alo mmandla. Kwisahluko sesibini kude kube yi-oral ngxoxo-mpikiswano phambi kokuba Inkundla, abo retired ekupheleni ngxoxo, kwaye lugqiba yi-uninzi isihlalo. I-ukubhalwa isigqibo ukuba ibandakanya izizathu dissenting imbono ye-minority ye-arbitrators, esayiniweyo ngumongameli kwaye yi-unobhala (phambi yi-arbitrators), kwaye kubalulekile ukufunda ukuba amaqela ngaphandle isibheno.

Nangona kunjalo, kuyenzeka ukuba get siyijonga kwimeko - discovery ezintsha ubungqina uhlobo ngu decisive phakathi isigaba yengxoxo-mpikiswano kwaye isibhengezo ye-verdict.

I-admission ye-kovavanyo isicelo, kwaye wonke isigqibo banikwa Enkundleni.

Ingaba kuchitha ukumisa ixesha ngaphakathi apho zibe zaziswe ukuba siyijonga umbuzo. Ezi imithetho wabeka phantsi inqaku, animatedly debated yi-Wesithathu Ikomiti ngowe. I-Osisigxina Inkundla arbitration inika inkxaso iimeko disputes ukuba ingaba bamthwala ngaphandle ngokunxulumene imigaqo wezizwe ezimanyeneyo Ikhomishini kwi-ngamazwe urhwebo umthetho, okanye UNCITRAL, apho involve njengoko amaqela States, ombuso okanye governmental organizations. Kwimeko apho ukuba amaqela kusilela lokonyula arbitrators, Nobhala Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration unako mthetho njengoko abasemagunyeni invested kunye amandla idinga. Inkundla inako kuphela esikhethiweyo kwi iimeko disputes okokuba ukuwa phantsi ezimanyeneyo Convention on umthetho kolwandle (UNCLOS). Inkundla ithe ngqo yanikezela zonke iimeko disputes, UNCLOS, ngaphandle kokuba omnye. I-PCA sele initiated ngo- i-project aimed e ukwenza set of arbitration imigaqo apho kuhlangana izikhankanyi ka-settling ngamazwe disputes kwi isithuba oko kukuthi extra-atmospheric. Eneneni, kubekho enye indlela yokusombulula le uhlobo imiba ukongeza kwi-ndlela esekwe Eyimali Convention, apho akavumeli ukuthatha inxaxheba non-ombuso.

Baba ke promulgated isithandathu disemba inkqubo Eyodwa Imithetho kuba Arbitration ka-Disputes malunga Ishishini ka-Extra-atmospheric.

Abazange baqonde okokuba injongo ezingaphezulu umsebenzi ka-imozulu ziquka hayi kuphela kwezo meko kuba disputes phakathi kwezizwe, kodwa kanjalo phakathi private abantu.

Ingaba States abathe acceded ukuba omnye okanye zombini Hague conventions ka- kwaye.

Ilungu ngalinye Likarhulumente angatyumba phezulu ukuya ubukhulu ka-ezine abathunywa, abo kwenziwe imisebenzi arbitrators. Bamele endinako a libanzi iinkalo zobuchule entsimini komthetho wamazwe ngamazwe, eliphezulu kwendlela reputation kwaye kufuneka uzimisele ukwamkela izibophelelo ye-arbitrators'. Oku inxalenye uluhlu: Inkundla ingaba enyanisweni thatha izigqibo ezikhoyo electronically zonke iimbali enxulumene iimeko examined kwixesha elidlulileyo. Phakathi kwe- kwaye, uhlahlo-lwabiwo-mali kuba Inkundla kwakukho omnye nineteenth century I-mali kuba Inkundla ingaba ukususela imirhumo amalungu ayo, kwaye yi-imirhumo ihlawulwe yi-amaqela kuba iimeko ukuba arbitration.

I-fixed iindleko ukuba ilungu ngalinye urhulumente kufuneka ahlawule nganye ngokusekelwe kwindlela ye-Jikelele Yeposi Union.

Nawuphi na umntu ucela arbitration kufuneka ahlawule indleko ukulungiselela inkundla, kuquka imivuzo ye-referees, iindleko kuba hluleka, kwaye imisebenzi yolawulo, kodwa hayi jikelele inkcitho ye-umbutho. Iindleko vary ukusuka meko ukuba kunjalo, kwaye zibe nomcimbi ka-negotiation phakathi Osisigxina Inkundla Arbitration, kwaye amaqela ityala.