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Inkundla isibheno


Inkundla ka-isibheno (okanye inkundla isibheno), abaninzi nezomthetho, inkundla linalo igunya yenze isigqibo malunga nezibheno ngokuchasene izigweboInkundla ka-isibheno, kuba inkoliso yawo, iimeko zasekuhlaleni kusenokuba umahlule kwi eziliqela 'amacandelo', 'amagumbi', okanye efanayo. Kukho kusenokuba enye inkundla okanye ezininzi iinkundla, ngamnye unoxanduva a bekhamera mmandla (umzekelo, kwi-Italy kukho amashumi amabini anesithandathu izithili Wenkundla ka-Isibheno) eyodwa, liphi na inkundla yokugqibela isehlo. Kukho kanjalo zinokuba iinkundla ka-isibheno ezikhethekileyo kolawulo lwesixeko limited ezithile imicimbi: cinga kweenkundla ka-isibheno, i-administrative isifrentshi okanye military Inkundla isibheno kwi-Italian. Rhoqo, inkundla isibheno ingaba inkundla yesibini isehlo, wabiza lokugqiba njengoko ngenxa isibheno ka-isihlalo esikhutshwe inkundla kuqala isehlo yayo, isigqibo kusenokuba appealed ngokuchasene kwi-supreme inkundla okanye inkundla cassation, njengoko inkundla yokugqibela isehlo. Kwezinye ongabhalwanga phantsi imida, nangona kunjalo, inkundla isibheno (okanye inkundla nezibheno) inkundla lokugqibela isehlo, kwaye, kule meko, designation lesiqu inkundla kusenokuba attributed ukuba inkundla thoba ibakala (ngoko ke kule Imeko sasenew York, xa Texas kwaye Oklahoma kuba inkundla yokugqibela isehlo kuba zasekuhlaleni, supreme inkundla, kwaye enye, ulwaphulo-mthetho, inkundla, ulwaphulo-mthetho nezibheno). Kwi-nezomthetho ka-zasekuhlaleni umthetho, inkundla isibheno, ngokubanzi, i-yovavanyo wenkundla, ngenxa yokuba lugqiba kuyo yonke imiba kunjalo, kunye kwimibuzo ka-fact njengoko kwi abo ekunene, besomeleza i ubizo: ngu-contested okanye ukutshintshwa kuya kunye layo. Ngokufanayo umthetho imida, nangona kunjalo, inkundla isibheno kufuneka limited amathuba uhlole ngemiba ngenxa yokuba kumiselwe yi - ubizo: contested, kwaye ngoko ke ingaba essentially lwabagwebi ka-legitimacy. Kanjalo kwi-nezomthetho ka-communist states, isibheno tends ukuba kulinganiselwa ulawulo kuphela legality ka-isihlalo phantsi isibheno Ngaphandle judging kwi isibheno, inkundla isibheno babe baqhuba kakuhle kakhulu kuba linalo igunya njengoko inkundla kuqala isehlo kuba ezithile subjects.