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Ezintathu imithetho Mendel kwaye ilifa lomthetho iimpawu: imithetho genetics


Genetics sele kuba science zonke iziphumo: namhlanje, sonke siyazi ukuba hereditary iimpawu ngamnye zimiselwe ngumthetho genes, apho zibekwe khona kwi-chromosomes, eziya DNA amacandeloUkuba, nangona kunjalo, namhlanje siyazi zonke ezi zinto zenza imibulelo Gregor Johann Mendel, abo ngomnyaka wesibini nesiqingatha i- ke siqulunqe ezintathu ezisisiseko imithetho genetics yi-identifying ntoni umthetho lo ilifa lomthetho iimpawu i-the new izizukulwana abantu. Mendel ke imithetho yesichumiso kunye kwezidalwa eziphilayo eziguquliweyo (izilwanyana, kuquka humans, kwaye bamele a ukuguqula incopho kwi-ukuqonda i-phenomenon obaluleke kakhulu, isiseko ubomi. Kunjalo, Mendel kwafuneka emnqamlezweni ngakumbi kwaye amaxesha amaninzi ezahlukeneyo ke ngoko phambi reaching ezithile iziphumo kwaye akwazi ziqulunqe ezintathu imithetho, ngobukho fact ukuba imithetho isenzo sempumelelo zibonakalisiwe kwi enkulu amanani. Xa, nangona kunjalo, ugqibile umsebenzi wakhe, u-Mendel ke imithetho baba formulated kwi-olugqityiweyo indlela kwaye sinako? ukwakha kwezi kwalomgaqo-siseko uphando ka-genetics. Ukususela crossing ezimbini nyulu imigca ukuba differ kuba uphawu olunye, ufumana u'a isizukulwana sokuqala apho abantu exhibit lunye kuphela isibini phenotypes kwi-parental (dominant uphawu). Yesibini ka-Mendel ke umthetho, kanjalo ngokuba Umthetho Segregation, iqala kwi ukungena ukuba ngamnye uphawu izimisele nge ifekta (i-gene), apho kukho ezimbini ezahlukeneyo iifomu (alleles), kwaye ifunda njengokulandelayo: Wonke umntu carries kunye ngokwayo, nganye gene, ezimbini ezahlukeneyo alleles. Ngexesha nokuzala, alleles efanayo gene eyahlukileyo kule gamete ukumiselwa kwebandla Oku kugqiba genotype enako heterozygous okanye homozygous. Wesithathu ka-Mendel ke kubalulekile kananjalo ngokuba Umthetho Ulungiso-Geqe kwaye ifunda njengokulandelayo: Ngethuba ukumiselwa kwebandla gametes, ezahlukeneyo genes zisasazwa ngokusecaleni kwendawo omnye nomnye. Kwixesha elizayo izizukulwana, ke ngoko, hereditary imibandela unako kubonakala independently, ukudibanisa ngokwahlukileyo ukususela oko waba elindelekileyo. Njengoko kuchazwe kwi-yokuqala ka-Mendel ke, dominant iimpawu koyisa phezu recessive genes, kwaye oku kuthatha indawo hayi kuphela pea izityalo, kodwa kanjalo kuyo umntu wolunye uhlanga. Iimpawu ingaba recessive (njenge-blue amehlo) manifested kunyana kuphela kwimeko ufumana enye inyanga ukusuka bobabini abazali. Kungenjalo, kuya kusoloko kuba dominant omnye kuvela isizukulwana sokuqala.